HIV is perhaps the most feared of all sexually transmitted diseases and it’s no wonder why -- the global epidemic has claimed millions of lives around the world. Unfortunately, there’s a lot of misinformation out there about how the virus is contracted, spread and treated, and that misinformation has serious consequences. How much do you know about HIV? Read on to learn the truth, and some surprising HIV statistics.
Symptoms develop between two and four weeks after an individual is infected with HIV. Many people experiencing HIV symptoms simply think they’ve contracted the flu. That’s because the symptoms are very similar and include:
● Sore throat
● Swollen glands
● Aches and pains in muscles and joints
Most people recover from their flu-like HIV symptoms and don’t experience other symptoms for years.
Some people may not experience HIV symptoms at all initially, and it can take up to ten years for them to feel the effects of the virus -- all the more reason to get tested regularly, even if HIV symptoms aren’t present.
The virus can survive for up to four weeks in syringes even after infected blood has been flushed out.
HIV can also survive in dried blood at room temperature for up to five or six days if that blood maintains the optimum pH level.
HIV sneaks past autoimmune cells by using a kind of camouflage. It surrounds itself with sugar molecules that fool the body into thinking it’s a nutrient instead of a threat.
The CDC estimates around 1,148,200 people 13 and older are currently HIV positive in the U.S.
One in six infected U.S. citizens don’t know they have HIV.
Every year, roughly 50,000 people in the United States become infected with HIV.
As of 2013, there were 35.0 million people living with HIV around the globe, up from 29.8 million in 2001. Scientists attribute these staggering HIV statistics to new infections, but also to general population growth and the fact that research and treatments have allowed those with HIV to live longer lives.
Every 9.5 minutes, someone in the U.S. is infected with HIV.
The District of Columbia has the highest AIDS case rate (112.5 per 100,000 in 2010) of any U.S. state or territory.
The AIDS case rate for black Americans is nearly 10 times greater than that of white Americans. Rates of HIV infection are eight times greater among blacks than whites in the U.S.
Approximately 68% of reported cases of HIV infection come from sub-Saharan Africa.
The virus is the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age.
In 2011 (the most recent data available) the age range with the highest number of HIV diagnoses was 45-49 years old.
The first known human to become infected with HIV was a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo whose blood was collected and tested in 1959. Scientists believe the first human infection may have occurred in the late 1940s or early 50s.
Today, most scientists explain the origin of HIV through the “bushmeat theory.” HIV began in chimp and monkey populations and was passed to humans through African hunters who may have been scratched or bitten by their prey.
Simply interacting with someone with HIV or AIDS won’t put you at risk of infection. Neither will:
● Breathing the same air.
● Using the same eating utensils or gym equipment.
● Touching a toilet seat, toothbrush or door knob.
● Sharing a drinking glass or water fountain.
● Hugging, kissing, shaking hands or touching someone with HIV or AIDS.
Mosquitos can’t spread HIV through bites.
As many as 30% of African-Americans and Latinos believe that HIV is a government conspiracy aimed at killing off specific ethnic populations. Although rates of HIV are higher in some ethnic populations than others, this disparity is likely due to socioeconomic inequalities that result in lowered access to educational resources and care.
A new drug is on the market that can help prevent contraction of the HIV virus. “PrEP” stands for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. It’s a single pill and when it’s taken every day it can help stop the HIV virus from “taking hold” and spreading if and when you’re exposed.
PrEP takes longer to build up in vaginal tissue than it does in rectal tissue — it can take up to 20 days to help effectively protect vaginal tissue. However, no matter how you’re having penetrative sex, PrEP shouldn’t be your only means of protection — use those condoms too!
In 1988, DC Comics introduced a villain named “Hemo-Goblin.” The HIV-positive vampire was created by a group of white supremacists and used to infect minorities. Not surprisingly, Hemo-Goblin wasn’t much of a fan favorite and the character appeared in only one issue of The New Guardians.
In the African country of Malawi, HIV is often spread through the practice of “widow-cleansing” in which a widow is “expected to have sexual relations, in order to cleanse her. There is a belief that if she does not sleep with someone, the spirit of her dead husband will come and visit upon her and her family will be cursed."
In Tanzania, persons with albinism are raped and killed because of an HIV superstition. Some citizens believe raping an albino girl can cure AIDS. Others murder albinos and use their blood, hair or other body parts for AIDS-curing potions.
Some Africans believe that HIV can be caused by witchcraft or by angry ancestors.
Despite the prevalence of superstitions like these, the only true way to guard yourself against HIV infection is to not come into contact with the blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or breast milk of someone who’s HIV-positive. This of course means not sharing needles, using condoms (and condom-compatible lube) and getting tested frequently. Know any interesting HIV statistics we didn’t include here? Share a link or a fact by tweeting us @Astroglide.
Images are for illustrative purposes only.